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Furfural mankhwala ophatikizana

Zachilendo (C4H3O-CHO), wotchedwanso 2-furaldehyde, wodziwika bwino m'banja la furan komanso gwero la mafani ena ofunikira. Ndi madzi opanda mtundu (malo otentha 161.7 ° C; mphamvu yokoka 1.1598) ikada mdima ndikamawonekera pamlengalenga. Imasungunuka m'madzi mpaka 8.3% mpaka 20 ° C ndipo imasokonekera kwathunthu ndi mowa ndi ether.

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 Pakati pazaka pafupifupi 100 panali nthawi kuyambira kupezeka kwa labotale kufikira pakupanga koyamba kwamalonda mu 1922. Kukula kwamakampani komwe kumachitika pambuyo pake kumapereka chitsanzo chabwino kwambiri chogwiritsa ntchito zotsalira zaulimi. Chimanga cha chimanga, zikopa za oat, zikopa za thonje, nkhumba za mpunga, ndi bagasse ndizo zikuluzikulu zopangira zinthu, zomwe zimakwaniritsidwa pachaka pachaka zomwe zimatsimikizira kupitilirabe. Pakukonzekera, zinthu zambiri zopangira ndi kusungunula asidi wa sulfuric zimathamangitsidwa pansi pothinikizidwa ndi ma digesters akulu ozungulira. The furfural anapanga amachotsedwa mosalekeza ndi nthunzi, ndipo anaikira ndi distillation; distillate, pa condensation, imagawika m'magawo awiri. Mzere wapansi, wopangidwa ndi chinyezi chonyowa, umayanika ndi distillation yopukutira kuti mupeze utoto wosachepera 99% yoyera.

Furfural imagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati chosungunulira chosankhira mafuta ndi mafuta a rosin, ndikuwongolera mawonekedwe amafuta a dizilo ndi othandizira obwezeretsanso m'matangadza. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pakupanga matayala okhazikika a utomoni komanso kuyeretsa kwa butadiene kofunikira pakupanga labala yopanga. Kupanga kwa nayiloni kumafuna hexamethylenediamine, komwe ubweya wake ndiwofunika. Kuphatikizana ndi phenol kumapereka utoto wa furfural-phenolic pazinthu zosiyanasiyana.

Mvula ya furfural ndi hydrogen ikadutsa chothandizira chamkuwa pakatentha kwambiri, furfuryl mowa amapangidwa. Chotsatira chofunikira ichi chimagwiritsidwa ntchito pamakampani apulasitiki popanga simenti zosagwira dzimbiri ndi zinthu zopangidwa ndi pulasitala. Hydrogenation yofanana ya furfuryl mowa pachotupa cha faifi tambala imapatsa tetrahydrofurfuryl mowa, komwe kumachokera ma esters osiyanasiyana ndi dihydropyran.

 Pochita kwake ngati aldehyde, ubweya waubweya umafanana kwambiri ndi benzaldehyde. Chifukwa chake, imakumana ndi mayankho a Cannizzaro mu alkali wamphamvu yamadzi; amachepetsa mpaka furoin, C4H3OCO-CHOH-C4H3Motsogoleredwa ndi potaziyamu cyanide; amatembenuzidwa kukhala hydrofuramide, (C4H3O-CH)3N2, ndi zochita za ammonia. Komabe, ubweya wamtunduwu umasiyana kwambiri ndi benzaldehyde m'njira zingapo, zomwe autoxidation ingakhale chitsanzo. Powonongeka ndi mpweya kutentha, ubweya wamtunduwu umasokonekera ndikumamatira ku formic acid ndi formylacrylic acid. Furoic acid ndi crystalline yoyera yolimba yothandiza ngati bakiteriya komanso yoteteza. Esters ake ndi zakumwa zonunkhira zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popangira zonunkhira ndi zonunkhira.


Post nthawi: Aug-15-2020